Integrated Pest Management Glossary
There are currently 96 definitions in this directory
Adult spider mite
The final stage of spider mite development, where the deutonymph molts into an adult, which is sexually mature and can lay eggs.
Small, soft-bodied insects with a pair of tube-like structures called cornicles on their hind end, which secrete a sugary substance called honeydew. They feed on plant sap and can transmit plant diseases.
A group of moth caterpillars whose larvae feed on the foliage of a wide range of crops, often in large numbers, and can cause severe defoliation.
The release of additional natural enemies to supplement existing populations and enhance their control of pest populations.
A group of moth caterpillars that construct a protective bag or case around themselves made of plant material, within which they feed on foliage and needles.
Beat sheet method
A method of counting insect pests by placing a sheet or tray beneath a plant and then beating the plant to dislodge and count any insects that fall onto the sheet.
Insects with hard, protective forewings called elytra, which cover the membranous hindwings.
The use of natural enemies, such as predators, parasites, pathogens, or competitors, to suppress pest populations.
Black light traps
A type of trap that uses ultraviolet light to attract and trap flying insects, which are then collected in a container.
A group of moths whose larvae feed on the reproductive structures of plants, including cotton bolls, tomatoes, and corn ears.
A group of moth caterpillars that feed on the foliage of plants in the cabbage family, creating large holes and causing severe damage.
The mouthparts of spider mites, which are adapted for piercing plant tissues and sucking out fluids.
The application of synthetic or natural chemicals to kill or repel pests, such as insecticides, herbicides, or fungicides.
A counting method that involves extracting insects from plant samples using chemical solutions, which are then counted under a microscope.
Complete metamorphosis is a type of insect development that involves four distinct stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. In this type of metamorphosis, the larval stage is very different from the adult stage in terms of physical appearance, behavior, and habitat. Larvae are usually worm-like and often feed heavily to grow in size. They later enter the pupal stage where they undergo a dramatic transformation before emerging as fully-formed adults.
The management of existing populations of natural enemies to maintain their effectiveness in controlling pest populations.
A group of moths whose larvae feed on the kernels of developing corn ears, causing significant yield loss.
The manipulation of environmental factors, such as crop rotation, irrigation, sanitation, or mulching, to make the conditions less favorable for pests.
A group of moth caterpillars whose larvae feed on the stems and leaves of young plants, often cutting them down at the base.
A monitoring method that calculates the number of degree-days, a measure of heat accumulation, to predict the timing of pest emergence and the need for control measures.
A term used to describe the brown or black pigmentation found in the exoskeleton of some spider mite species.
The fourth stage of spider mite development, where the protonymph molts into a deutonymph, which also has eight legs and continues feeding.
A period of arrested development that occurs in certain insect species, where the insect temporarily suspends development in response to environmental cues such as temperature or photoperiod, to survive unfavorable conditions.
A monitoring method that involves using cameras or other digital imaging technology to capture images of plants and analyze them for signs of pest activity.
Refers to the state of having two sets of chromosomes in the cell, which is the case in the somatic cells (body cells) of spider mites.
A molecular biology technique that uses quantitative PCR (qPCR) to count the number of insect pests in a sample by detecting and quantifying the DNA of the pest.
The point at which the cost of controlling a pest population is justified by the economic benefits of reducing damage or increasing yields.
Egg (Spider Mite)
The first stage of spider mite development, where the mite lays eggs on plant surfaces.
The fifth and final stage of the larval development after molting from the fourth instar, in species that have five larval stages.
A group of small flies whose larvae feed on the flesh of fruit, causing significant damage to fruit crops.
Large insects with powerful hind legs adapted for jumping, whose nymphs and adults feed on the foliage of a wide range of crops.
A rare genetic abnormality in spider mites, where an individual has both male and female traits and characteristics.
Refers to the state of having only one set of chromosomes in the cell, which is the case in the gametes (sperm and eggs) of spider mites.
The range of different species of hosts that a particular natural enemy is capable of attacking and controlling.
Hot water method
A counting method that involves submerging harvested fruit or vegetable samples in hot water to force insects to emerge, which are then counted.
The adult reproductive stage of winged insects, such as butterflies and moths, that emerges from the pupal stage.
Incomplete metamorphosis is a type of insect development that involves three distinct stages: egg, nymph, and adult. In this type of metamorphosis, the nymph stage is similar in appearance to the adult stage but lacks wings and reproductive organs. Nymphs typically feed and grow until they reach maturity, where they develop wings and reproductive organs and emerge as fully-formed adults.
The periodic release of small numbers of natural enemies to establish or maintain their presence in the environment.
A developmental stage of insect larvae, marked by a molting period in which the insect sheds its skin and grows larger.
Integrated pest management (IPM)
A holistic approach to pest control that combines various methods, including biological control, to manage pest populations and reduce the use of chemical pesticides.
The second stage of insect development, where the insect hatches from the egg and typically undergoes several stages of growth.
Larva (Spider Mite)
The second stage of spider mite development, where the egg hatches into a six-legged larva that begins feeding on plant tissues.
Small, wedge-shaped insects with wings that hold them in a "V" shape, whose nymphs and adults feed on plant sap and can transmit plant diseases.
A method of estimating the population size of insect pests by marking a known number of insects, releasing them, and then recapturing a sample of the marked insects at a later time. The total population size can be estimated based on the proportion of marked insects in the sample.
The process of raising large numbers of natural enemies in captivity for release into the environment.
Soft-bodied insects covered with a waxy, white or gray coating, whose nymphs and adults feed on plant sap and produce honeydew.
The physical removal or exclusion of pests, such as trapping, hand-picking, mowing, or netting.
Metamorphosis is a process of development that insects undergo in which they transform from one stage to another. It involves a series of physiological, anatomical, and behavioral changes that occur as insects grow and develop.
The regular observation and assessment of pest populations and damage, as well as environmental and biological factors, to inform pest management decisions.
An organism that preys on, parasitizes, or otherwise controls another organism, such as a pest insect.
A pesticide that can harm a broad range of organisms, including non-target species.
An immature form of certain insect species, such as grasshoppers or aphids, that resembles the adult form but lacks wings and reproductive structures.
The appendages on the head of spider mites, which are used for manipulating food and other objects.
A type of insect that lays its eggs on or in a host insect, which serves as a food source for the developing parasitoid larvae.
A type of asexual reproduction in some spider mite species, where females can lay unfertilized eggs that develop into clones of the parent.
A microorganism, such as a bacteria, virus, or fungus, that causes disease in plants or animals.
A molecular biology technique that detects the presence of DNA from specific insect pests in plant tissue samples, providing an early warning of potential pest infestations.
A chemical substance that is used by insects to communicate with each other, often to attract mates or mark territories. Pheromones can also be used to trap or repel insects.
A monitoring method that uses synthetic pheromones, which are chemicals produced by insects to communicate with each other, to attract and trap insects for counting.
A counting method that involves taking photos of the plants and counting the insects in the photos using digital image analysis.
A monitoring method that involves placing small containers, such as cups or jars, in the soil to trap crawling insects.
Specialized appendages found on the larval stage of some spider mite species, which aid in movement and attachment to plant surfaces.
The third stage of spider mite development, where the larva molts into a protonymph, which has eight legs and continues feeding.
The third stage of insect development, where the insect transforms into its adult form inside a protective cocoon or shell.
A monitoring method that uses drones, satellites, or other remote sensing technology to capture images of crops and analyze them for signs of pest infestation.
The ability of a pest population to survive or reproduce after exposure to a pesticide or other control method, due to genetic or behavioral changes.
A pesticide that targets a specific pest and minimizes harm to non-target organisms.
Spider mites (Tetranychidae)
Tiny arachnids that feed on the undersides of leaves, causing stippling and discoloration, and can quickly build up large populations under warm and dry conditions.
Sterile insect technique (SIT)
A method of pest control that involves releasing large numbers of sterilized insects, which mate with wild insects, but produce no viable offspring, eventually leading to a decline in the pest population.
A monitoring method that involves placing adhesive-coated cards or sheets around the plants to capture flying insects, which are then counted.
Shield-shaped insects with a characteristic odor, whose nymphs and adults feed on plant tissue and can cause significant damage to a wide range of crops.
A method of monitoring insect pests by using a large net to sweep through the foliage of plants and collect insects for counting.
A monitoring method that involves physically feeling for insects on plants or soil to determine the presence and level of pest infestation.
A family of spider mites that includes many economically important species, such as the two-spotted spider mite.
Small, slender insects with fringed wings, whose nymphs and adults feed on plant sap and can transmit plant diseases.
A unique monitoring method that involves training dogs to detect specific pests by scent.
A method of monitoring pest populations by directly observing plants for signs of pest activity, such as chewed leaves or other damage.
A counting method that involves washing plant material in a bucket of water, then counting the insects that float to the surface.
Small, moth-like insects with powdery white wings, whose nymphs and adults feed on plant sap and produce honeydew, and can transmit plant diseases.
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